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Canadian CEPA

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Some excerpts from and links to Canadian CEPA regulations

Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations
(refer to this link for context and more information)

The Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations introduce emission standards for diesel engines used in off-road applications such as those typically found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines. The Regulations, under section 160 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), apply to engines of the 2006 and later model year.


  • exclusively used for competition
  • designed to be used exclusively in underground mines (which are subject to much stricter regulations)
  • designed to be used in military machines for use in combat or combat support
  • with a per-cylinder displacement of less than 50 cubic centimeters
  • for exportation only
  • installed in marine vessels


"The option exists for Canada to adopt its own emissions standards. However, as more than 99 percent of small spark-ignition engines currently sold in Canada are certified to the EPA standards, unique Canadian standards would represent an additional burden and would conflict with the trend towards global harmonization of emission standards. The European Union has adopted a directive for emission standards for small spark-ignition engines that are essentially aligned with those of the U.S. EPA" (from the non-official Gazette version) (refer to this link for context and more information)

Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations (refer to this link for context and more information)

The Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations (hereinafter referred to as "the Regulations") introduce exhaust emission standards for off-road small spark-ignition engines developing no more than 19 kW (25 hp). These engines typically use gasoline fuel but liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas can also be used. Small spark-ignition engines are typically found in lawn and garden machines (hedge trimmers, brush cutters, lawnmowers, garden tractors, snow-blowers, etc.); in light-duty industrial machines (generator sets, welders, pressure washers, etc.); and in light-duty logging machines (chainsaws, log splitters, shredders, etc.).

...The Regulations, under Part 7, Division 5 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), establish Canadian emission standards aligned with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) rules for small spark-ignition engines. The Regulations will apply to engines of the 2005 and later model year.

...The Regulations account for in-use deterioration as an engine must meet the standards throughout its useful life. At the time of engine certification, a manufacturer can select one of three specified useful life duration periods, which range from 50 to 1000 hours depending on the engine class. For example, for a class I engine, the useful life can be 125, 250 or 500 hours...  (editor's comment) won't it be nice when a manufacturer is mandated to label the useful life of their engine?  The consumer will then be able make more intelligent purchase comparisons.

Some exemptions

Alternative less stringent emission standards, consistent with those available under the CFR, are available:

  • for HC+NOx levels for engines in machines used exclusively in wintertime, such as ice augers and snow-blowers; These engines are subject to the applicable CO standard.
  • for replacement engines which are engines manufactured exclusively to replace an existing engine in a machine for which no current model year engine with physical or performance characteristics necessary for the operation of the machine exists;
  • transition engines that correspond to the flexibility provisions, available under the U.S. EPA standards, for machine manufacturers to continue using an earlier engine specification where changes to accommodate a new technology engine would be difficult.
  • for class III, IV and V when less than 2000 engines of a particular model are sold in total in Canada to accommodate Canada-only niche products. This new provision was introduced following comments raised by manufacturers supplying specialized products used by the forestry industry

Regulations,  when and what's covered for spark ignition engines:

Manufacture Date

EPA Tier

HP Range

kW Range

January 1, 2006


0 - 49.5 hp

Under 37 kW

January 1, 2008 4

January 1, 2006


49.6 - 100.5  hp

37 75  kW

January 1, 2008


January 1, 2006


100.6 - 174.3 hp

75 130 kW

January 1, 2007


January 1, 2006


174.4 - 750.9 hp

130 560 kW

January 1, 2011  

January 1, 2006


> 751 hp

> 560 kW

Some links for more information and what others have to say about Canada's CEPA standard:

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Last modified: April 17, 2010